Glossary

There are many acronyms and terms used by specialists in the field of digital identification and cyber security. At Symbiotic Consultancy Services, our role is to help you navigate through the terminology to help you to find the solution that is right for your organisation, not confuse you. This glossary contains some of the terms you may come across, along with our explanation of the term and how it is used. If you ever come across a term you want explained [which are not in our glossary], please feel free to ask us.

Term / Acronym

Defintion

Address of Record

The validated and verified location (physical or digital) where an individual can receive communications using approved mechanisms.

Applicant

A person undergoing the processes of registration and identity proofing.

Assertion

A statement, which may contain verified attributes, from a verifier entity to a Relying Party containing identity information about a person.

Assurance

The degree of confidence that the individual who uses a security credential is the same person to whom the credential was issued during the identity proofing vetting process.

Asymmetric Keys

Two related keys, consisting of a public key and a private key, that are used to perform complementary crypto graphic operations, i.e. encryption and decryption.

Attack

An attempt by an unauthorised entity to deceive a verifier entity or a Relying Party into believing that the unauthorized entity in question is the authorised Subscriber.

Attacker

A party who acts with malicious intent to infiltrate an information system through compromising the information system's access control mechanisms.

Attribute

A quality or characteristic ascribed to an individual, an entity or an object.

Authentication

The process of determining the validity of one or more credentials used by a person to claim ownership of a digital identity, as identied by a unique system identifier..

Authentication Protocol

A defined sequence of messages between an indiviidual's intelligent device and a verifier entity that demonstrates that the subject has possession and total control of one or more valid authenticators to establish their identity, and, optionally, demonstrates that the claimant is communicating with the intended verifier.

Authenticator

vice oand/or knowledge that an individual possesses and controls (for example, a cryptographic module or password) which produces authentication data that is used by a verifier entity or Relying Party to authenticate the individual’s claim to a specific digital identity.

Authenticator Assurance Level (AAL)

A category describing the authentication process proving that the claimant is in control of a given subscriber’s authenticator(s).

Authenticator Secret

The secret value contained within an authenticator.

Authenticity

The property that data originated from their purported source.

Biometrics

Automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristics.

Claimant

A subject whose identity is to be verified using one or more authentication protocols.

Claimed Identity

A declaration of unvalidated and unverified personal attributes by the applicant.

Credential

An object or data structure that authoritatively binds an identity, via an identifier or identifiers, and, optionally, additional attributes, to at least one authenticator possessed and controlled by a subscriber. While common usage often assumes that the credential is maintained by the subscriber, this document also uses the term to refer to electronic records maintained by the CSP which establish a binding between the subscriber’s authenticator(s) and identity.

Credential Service Provider (CSP)

A trusted entity that issues or registers subscriber authenticators and issues electronic credentials to subscribers. The CSP may encompass Registration Authorities (RAs) and verifiers that it operates. A CSP may be an independent third party, or may issue credentials for its own use.

Cryptographic Key

A value used to control cryptographic operations, such as decryption, encryption, signature generation or signature verification. For the purposes of this document, key requirements shall meet the minimum requirements stated in Table 2 of NIST SP 800-57 Part 1. See also Asymmetric Keys, Symmetric Key.

Cryptographic Authenticator

An authenticator where the secret is a cryptographic key.

Digital Authentication

The process of establishing confidence in user identities presented digitally to a system. In previous editions of SP 800-63, this was referred to as Electronic Authentication.

Digital Signature

An asymmetric key operation where the private key is used to digitally sign data and the public key is used to verify the signature. Digital signatures provide authenticity protection, integrity protection, and non-repudiation but not confidentiality protection.

Electronic Authentication (E-Authentication)

See Digital Authentication.

Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

Title III of the E-Government Act requiring each federal agency to develop, document, and implement an agency-wide program to provide information security for the information and systems that support the operations and assets of the agency, including those provided or managed by another agency, contractor, or other source.

Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)

Under the Information Technology Management Reform Act (Public Law 104-106), the Secretary of Commerce approves standards and guidelines that are developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for Federal computer systems. These standards and guidelines are issued by NIST as Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) for use government-wide. NIST develops FIPS when there are compelling Federal government requirements such as for security and interoperability and there are no acceptable industry standards or solutions. See background information for more details.

Federation

A process that allows for the conveyance of identity and authentication information across a set of networked systems.

Federation Assurance Level

A category describing the assertion protocol utilized by the federation to communicate authentication and attribute information (if applicable) to an RP.

Identity

An attribute or set of attributes that uniquely describe a subject within a given context.

Identity Assurance Level (IAL)

A category that conveys the degree of confidence that the applicant’s claimed identity is their real identity.

Identity Proofing

The process by which a CSP and an RA collect and verify information about a person for the purpose of issuing credentials to that person.

Identity Provider (IdP)

The party that manages the subscriber’s primary authentication credentials and issues assertions derived from those credentials. This is commonly the CSP as discussed within this document suite.

Memorized Secret

A type of authenticator consisting of a character string that is intended to be memorized or memorable by the subscriber, permitting the subscriber to demonstrate something they know as part of an authentication process.

Multi-Factor

A characteristic of an authentication system or an authenticator that requires more than one authentication factor for successful authentication. MFA can be performed using a single authenticator that provides more than one factor or by a combination of authenticators that provide different factors. The three authentication factors are something you know, something you have, and something you are.

Network

An open communications medium, typically the Internet, that is used to transport messages between the claimant and other parties. Unless otherwise stated, no assumptions are made about the security of the network; it is assumed to be open and subject to active (e.g., impersonation, man-in-the-middle, session hijacking) and passive (e.g., eavesdropping) attack at any point between the parties (e.g., claimant, verifier, CSP, RP).

Password

See memorized secret.

Personal Identification Number (PIN)

A memorized secret typically consisting only of decimal digits.

Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

Personally Identifiable Information means information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual’s identity, either alone or when combined with other information that is linked or linkable to a specific individual.

Private Key

The secret part of an asymmetric key pair that is used to digitally sign or decrypt data.

Pseudonymous Identifier

A meaningless but unique number that does not allow the RP to infer anything regarding the subscriber but which does permit the RP to associate multiple interactions with the subscriber’s claimed identity.

Public Key

The public part of an asymmetric key pair that is used to verify signatures or encrypt data.

Public Key Certificate

A digital document issued and digitally signed by the private key of a certificate authority that binds an identifier to a subscriber to a public key. The certificate indicates that the subscriber identified in the certificate has sole control and access to the private key. See also [RFC 5280].

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

A set of policies, processes, server platforms, software and workstations used for the purpose of administering certificates and public-private key pairs, including the ability to issue, maintain, and revoke public key certificates.

Registration

The process through which an applicant applies to become a subscriber of a CSP and has their identity validated by the CSP.

Relying Party (RP)

An entity that relies upon the subscriber’s authenticator(s) and credentials or a verifier’s assertion of a claimant’s identity, typically to process a transaction or grant access to information or a system.

Remote

(In the context of remote authentication or remote transaction) An information exchange between network-connected devices where the information cannot be reliably protected end-to-end by a single organization’s security controls.Note: Any information exchange across the Internet is considered remote.

Risk Assessment

The process of identifying, estimating, and prioritizing risks to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, and other organizations, resulting from the operation of a system. Part of risk management, incorporates threat and vulnerability analyses, and considers mitigations provided by security controls planned or in place. Synonymous with risk analysis.

Risk Management

The program and supporting processes to manage information security risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and includes: (i) establishing the context for risk-related activities; (ii) assessing risk; (iii) responding to risk once determined; and (iv) monitoring risk over time.

Shared Secret

A secret used in authentication that is known to the subscriber and the verifier.

Special Publication (SP)

A type of publication issued by NIST. Specifically, the SP 800-series reports on the Information Technology Laboratory’s research, guidelines, and outreach efforts in computer security, and its collaborative activities with industry, government, and academic organizations.

Subscriber

A party who has received a credential or authenticator from a CSP.

Subject

A person, organization, device, hardware, network, software, or service.

Symmetric Key

A cryptographic key that is used to perform both the cryptographic operation and its inverse, for example to encrypt and decrypt, or create a message authentication code and to verify the code.

Valid

In reference to identity evidence, the quality of not being expired or revoked.

Verifier

An entity that verifies the claimant’s identity by verifying the claimant’s possession and control of one or two authenticators using an authentication protocol. To do this, the verifier may also need to validate credentials that link the authenticator(s) to the subscriber’s identifier and check their status.

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Digital Identity Security Consultants
Identity & Access Management | Biometric Authentication & Identification | Data Encryption & Digital Signatures | Public Key Infrastructures & Directories

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